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:: Volume 6, Issue 3 (Vol.6, No.3,autumn 2018) ::
J Neyshabur Univ Med Sci 2018, 6(3): 76-86 Back to browse issues page
Saffron, Organ Toxicity and Clinical Complications: A Review
Omid Mehrpour Dr.1, Tahereh Farkhondeh Dr.2, Mohammadebrahim Ravanbakhsh Dr.3, Amirhossein Ebrahimi Dr.3, Saeed Samarghandian Dr. * 4
1- Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver, Colorado
2- Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
3- Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
4- , samarghandians@mums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (709 Views)
Introduction: The perennial herb saffron belongs to the Lily family. From ancient times, saffron as traditional medicine is used as an effective drug for treatment of eye, nervous system, digestive system, kidney, cardiovascular, respiratory, and reproductive systems disorders. Pharmacological research has shown the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects of saffron and its compounds. However, reports have been made on the toxic effects of saffron and its active substances (Crocin, Crosteen, Safranal). This review considered the scientific literature on the toxic effects of saffron and its active ingredients.
Methods: We searched the literature for basic and clinical studies concerned with the toxic effects of saffron and its active compounds. The electronic databases including PubMed-Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched till to 2019. Keywords were crocus sativus, saffron, safranal, toxicity, crocetin, crocin,  picrocrocin combined in different ways to retrieve related articles.
Results: The present study provides information on the organic toxicity of saffron and its active components, as well as their side effects in humans. The results of this study showed that the therapeutic doses of saffron and its active ingredients do not induce toxic effects in clinical or experimental studies. Conclusion: Due to the reported toxic effects of saffron and its components in humans, thus the safety of this plant is unclear. It seems that the use of high doses of saffron, especially for pregnant women, should be taken with more care.
Keywords: Saffron, Safranal, Crocin, Crocetin, Toxicity
Full-Text [PDF 973 kb]   (139 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Pharmacy
Received: 2018/06/9 | Revised: 2019/01/16 | Accepted: 2018/11/10 | Published: 2019/01/14 | ePublished: 2019/01/14
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Mehrpour O, Farkhondeh T, Ravanbakhsh M, Ebrahimi A, Samarghandian S. Saffron, Organ Toxicity and Clinical Complications: A Review . J Neyshabur Univ Med Sci. 2018; 6 (3) :76-86
URL: http://journal.nums.ac.ir/article-1-651-en.html


Volume 6, Issue 3 (Vol.6, No.3,autumn 2018) Back to browse issues page
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